Note the lack of hyphen for the command flags. I have a compiled REXX exec that invokes commands in a file via: "BPXBATCH SH" file_name I have STDOUT allocated to an OMVS dataset. SOURCE(PGMJAVA)'. BPXBATCH can be invoked form a JCL (batch job) or from TSO: JCL: EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM='SH program-name' EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM='PGM program-name' TSO: BPXBATCH SH program-name BPXBATCH. STDOUT and STDERR are your standard-output and standard-error designations. BPXBATCH can be invoked form a JCL (batch job) or from TSO: JCL: EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’SH program-name’ EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’PGM program-name’ TSO: BPXBATCH SH program-name BPXBATCH. Skip to content. Running Shell Executables in Batch: BPXBATCH. As an alternative to confusing IBM utilities such as BPXBATCH, Co:Z Batch is designed to simplify the integration of z/OS Unix with batch jobs. Note that the quotes (") are not needed when Windows commands are run from JCL, but they are needed when the remote commands are run from USS shell: BPXBATCH PGM /usr/lpp/ssh2/bin/ssh2 + -oCharsetConvert=yes + -ostricthostkeychecking=no + [email protected] Today ISPF is usually the default environment used by the developer and administrator communities in most z/OS installations 14 IBM Security Key Lifecycle Manager for z/OS: Deployment and Migration Considerations. The javac shell command is actually a way to launch java and run the "com. Enter a hyphen (-) for all optional search criteria fields and a valid SMP/E CSI name. Users must be set up to use a non-interactive authentication. Messages are copied to the same destination as TSO messages. 0 the only workaround for this is to run the object spawner under the shell. -Santosh ""Its in my Blood to b+ve"". In order to run Unix System Services (USS) shell commands, scripts and others, from a batch job, you can use the BPXBATCH program provided with z/OS. Computer Exercise: Batch work. What is wrong with my script? also if i am executing a shell script placed in an UNIX server how do i do it using BPXBATCH? , what parameters do i need, like do i need the IP of the UNIX server to make a connection and then specifiy the directory structure where my script is placed?[/code]. pdf text version. APPL1,DISP=SHR //DD2 DD DSN=MVSDSN. Shell commands: diff, patch, dircmp, cmp, cksum, comm, uniq, wc, od Computer Exercise: Splitting files. Korn Shell Arithmetic: Lab N. Subject: ssh-keygen Command Sent by: IBM Mainframe Discussion List Is there anyway to execute the following command in a Batch job on the mainframe ? ssh-keygen -t dsa -b 1024 -N "" -f ~/. commands generated by CMNBAQ00 to the CMNHUTIL output ddname. BPXBATCH can be invoked form a JCL (batch job) or from TSO: JCL: EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’SH program-name’ EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’PGM program-name’ TSO: BPXBATCH SH program-name BPXBATCH. Console Commands D OMVS D. If the form has been removed, address your comments to. I suppose I could create the shell script, TSO ALLOC STDIN and STDOUT and then call BPXBATCH, but that seems awfully round-about. Users must be set up to use a non-interactive authentication. Console Commands D A C. i would be happy to use BPXBATCH instead of IKJEFT1B, but when trying to use it, there seem to be two major problems: * i have no idea how to deal with commands that are longer than 80. Programme complet des formations dispensées: Spécialiste mainframe, Blondeau Informatique propose une offre z/Heritage complète, de la formation z/OS à la gestion de vos applications héritées. For more detail, use −. When the compiled load module is run on another system, no output is writted to STDOUT. OPUT Example K. ssh/id_dsa Thank You. BPXBATCH has logic in it to detect when it is run from JCL. USS will start your main shell and put you at the default location of "/u//", this is your home directory. The job would submit to JES, execute remotely on the Windows platform, and the output (stderr/stdout) would be processed on the mainframe. Hi, I have a situation where in we have created shell scripts to transfer data from/to mainframe and Solaris. profile (which overrides /etc/profile). 0 and later, COZBATCH can be used with z/OS OpenSSH to script an ssh client job. Each shell is slightly different in the way it interacts with the user and executes scripts (programs). Instructs BPXBATCH to start the shell, and to run shell commands or scripts that are provided from stdin or the specified program-name. The login shell parses the &, signifying that the command is to run asynchronously (in the background), and forks a child process to run the nohup command. The challenge uses JCL to execute Unix shell commands and execute a standard z/OS system utility to copy data from a partitioned data set member name to a Unix file name. There were other issues with our task. On Unix-like operating systems, a set of flags associated with each file determines who can access that file. Users must be set up to use a non-interactive authentication. In the child process, the nohup shell command (which takes another command as an argument) prevents the process from being terminated when the login shell returns to BPXBATCH. /A - A field that defines the pathname of the initial directory used when a user enters the OMVS command or enters the ISPF shell. I have used the following script on a suggestion #!/bin/ksh ftp -n << EOF open user ascii site file=jes put quit EOF It requires the JCL file to be in the dir from which I am executing this script which is ok. file mymaster. scp2 uses the same syntax for interactive and unattended file transfers. BPXBATCH Example: Shell Cmd c. sh was created by touch command and after this I gave the permission via chmod 777. The "-b" switch tells sftp to use the batch file "sftp-batch" for its input. I suppose I could create the shell script, TSO ALLOC STDIN and STDOUT and then call BPXBATCH, but that seems awfully round-about. setuidWhat is setuid? setgidWhat is setgid? Sticky bitWhat is Sticky bit? Read Write Execute. Skip to content. Back to top. Many thanks to Don and Kirk, I now have a sftp working in a BPXBATCH step, using a script as they suggested. RPT(SMPERPT) b) Invoke the CA-EXAMINE application from within ISPF/PDF. On the z/OS USS side, you can use the SWCLA interactively or with shell scripts. Use TSO commands to create and view UNIX files and directories, perform data transfer between z/OS data sets and UNIX files. Result: Message updated with SMTP commands & headers, and transmitted to JES spool data set § Sendmail could be invoked both from the OMVS shell and through JCL (via BPXBATCH), so the sendmail bridge is able to be invoked in the same way § See the appendix for more information on the sendmail bridge, including configuration statements. Subject: ssh-keygen Command Sent by: IBM Mainframe Discussion List Is there anyway to execute the following command in a Batch job on the mainframe ? ssh-keygen -t dsa -b 1024 -N "" -f ~/. The mount command compares filesystem source, target (and fs root for bind mount or btrfs) to detect already mounted filesystems. These same functions – install, update, modify, roll back, uninstall – are available via the command line. 3 from the command line to display the INSTALLED PRODUCTS SELECTION menu. shell command (which takes another command as an argument) prevents the process from being terminated when the login shell returns to BPXBATCH. BPXBATCH is an MVS utility that you can use to run shell commands or shell scripts and to run executable. Tectia SFTP from mainframe to Windows server. The command line is a text-based scripting language and PowerShell is an object-oriented Scripting language. Scheduling a program. • ZFS shell command 'zfsadm query -vnodecache' reports higher # of Vnodes usage than the actual configured size (66k vs. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. -> The tcsh shell commands are documented in OS/390 UNIX System Services Command Reference. In order to run Unix System Services (USS) shell commands, scripts and others, from a batch job, you can use the BPXBATCH program provided with z/OS. You can, however, use the free Co:Z Toolkit which has: - a replacement for BPXBATCH that works correctly - a replacement for IBM sftp that supports z/OS datasets, among other z/OS extensions. BPXBATCH is an OS/390 utility that can be used to run UNIX shell commands, shell scripts, or executable HFS files (programs) through the OS/390 batch environment. The thumbtack icon is from the Android Action Bar Icon Pack and is used under the terms "You may use the materials in this file without restriction to develop your apps and to use in your. c I then run the executable from a z/OS shell session: >. - Select an action bar choice. Exit sFTP Shell. USS Operator Issues. To write the system dump to an OS/390 dataset, issue the command or export the following in IHSROOT/bin/envvars:. The locate command keeps filenames in a database, and can find them very fast. That was strange. SDS E-Business Server® is a PGP encryption product for z/OS data at rest. Member #13 created! Now let's exit the oedit section & the unix shell session and return to the ISPF session. These tools allows the SequeLink administrator to customize the SequeLink environment with Rexx or shell scripts. 17, or BPXBATCH. International Technical Support Organization. What is the mv command in UNIX?. watsonwalker. Estimated reading time: 4 minutes Table of contents. In syslog/syslogd I found no messages. The WSADMIN client is really just a UNIX shell script. SA z/OS acts as an asynchronous data provider and sends SA z/OS-specific events to the automation adapter’s EIF event receiver. While it is possible to pass relatively long commands to BPXBATCH via the PARM parameter on the JCL EXEC statement by using JCL continuation rules, this method is still limited to 100 bytes. If you create a new JCL template, be aware that: The Shell ID is restricted to three characters. The job would submit to JES, execute remotely on the Windows platform, and the output (stderr/stdout) would be processed on the mainframe. ssh/id_dsa Thank You. Operator Tools & Interfaces B. Issue: SFTP via Mainframe using BPXBATCH. Exit sFTP Shell. Additionally, other mechanisms (e. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch G. "shell" (telnet) - not tn3270 - a secure replacement for tty telnet (eg. # # # # The uploaded JCL contains an implementation of CVE-2012-5951 #. in the "PARM" option or the "STDIN" dataset. BPXBATCH does not allow you to use DD:STDIN with an MVS dataset (only Unix files). The bc command. Related commands. Line Commands > execute login shell, < execute command, E Edit, B Browse, N Create new Directory, L Directory List, D Delete, R Rename, C|CO Copy Out, CI Copy In, I Information, MM Modify Mode Fields, MX Modify Attributes, X Execute, V View (New!) ISPF Configuration: Pathname Substitution Character ! (German ) YCOS Yves Colliard Software. 00 Second Edition This Documentation, which includes embedded help systems and electronically distributed materials, (hereinafter referred to as the “Documentation”) is for your informational purposes only and is subject to change or withdrawal by CA at any time. WebSphere Application Server, Version 8. x: extract the files. USS Operator Issues. I am trying to run a job that calls BPXBATCH do execute a Unix script. For most Systems programmers, running JSPWiki on the mainframe is a natural choice: you know your way around in the environment you can reuse your existing backup procedures reuse your existing disaster recovery procedures reuse your existing system management goodies like WLM and SMF integrate with your existing RACF/ACF2 security package. Includes user-defined fucntions, sed, and the BPXBATCH facility. profile (which overrides /etc/profile). There's a super cool shorthand you can use to execute a second command based on the success or failure of a command. Emacs has commands for passing single command lines to shell subprocesses, and for running a shell interactively with input and output to an Emacs buffer, and for running a shell in a terminal emulator window. By default, the working directory is the directory in which ftp was started. What TCP ports are used? TCP port 21 for FTP. JVMJZBL1038E Child shell process exited with exit code: 1 JVMJZBL1042E JZOS batch launcher failed, return code=102 My region size is 200,000 so I don't believe region size is the issue. Enter a hyphen (-) for all optional search criteria fields and a valid SMP/E CSI name. You are missing something: The file essentially does have the same content WITH ONE EXECEPTION and this is the problem. All you need now is: tar xf community_images. BPXBATCH PGM /opt/tectia/bin/sshg3 + [email protected] watsonwalker. You should not need any Java skill to run through these labs, but basic knowledge of. BPXBATCH passes all of the argument data, blanks included as is, to the shell as one parameter. Using the UNIX ISPF editor (OEDIT) 4. If you do not define OMVSPGM, USS gives control to the default shell program. This is because SH causes BPXBATCH to execute a login shell that runs the /etc/profile script and runs the user's. The command line is a text-based scripting language and PowerShell is an object-oriented Scripting language. BPXBATCH SH|PGM shell_command|program_name //jJava. This step runs USS batch mode with the shell-command processing (SH) parameter passed. When used noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in tab-separated format. The env shell command can be used to invoke a program from the shell and pass environment variable settings to it. This tutorial will help you to mount and unmount filesystem in Linux system. typeset Command H. You can invoke BPXBATCH from a JCL job or from TSO/E (as a command, through a CALL command, or from a CLIST or REXX EXEC). That was strange. Here is the GUI main panel: This is what you will probably be using to install the zPMT on Windows or Linux. The BPXBATCH program. The WSADMIN client is really just a UNIX shell script. It can be used from TSO (or TSO in batch) to run a command under the Unix System Services shell. To configure the JCL for your site naming conventions, follow these steps: a. • when high I/O in USS (typical for WAS z/OS workloads). These tools allows the SequeLink administrator to customize the SequeLink environment with Rexx or shell scripts. Executing remote commands on the server. You should not need any Java skill to run through these labs, but basic knowledge of. > > Thanks. This will run the script wlpenv and resume the Liberty server endpoints. PageiiiDevelopingMainframeJava. -Advertising - Top. Running Shell Executables in Batch: BPXBATCH. export MASTERA=DSN(MY. Skip to content. It tells you if JVMs can be found in any dumped processes. It is not designed to run as many programs or shell scripts as you want -- just one. However, commands prefixed with "-" (dash) always return 0, even if the command fails. A COBOL source file that contains a class definition is often the gateway between Java and COBOL. pdf), Text File (. 大学四年,看课本是不可能一直看课本的了,对于学习,特别是自学,善于搜索网上的一些资源来辅助,还是非常有必要的,下面我就把这几年私藏的各种资源,网站贡献出来给你们。. BPXBATCH is a system supplied utility program to interact with z/OS Unix services; BPXBATCH writes to STDOUT and STDERR; BPXBATCH reads from STDPARM; Observe all the Unix commands following //STDPARM DD * are terminated with a semi-colon (;) Observe sh is the first STDPARM input providing a shell for the Unix commands that follow. The javac shell command is actually a way to launch java and run the "com. //STEP1 EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH //STDOUT DD SYSOUT=* //STDERR DD SYSOUT=* //* //* Replace the value of TOOLSDIR with the path to curl. For the full syntax of the trapmon function, run the awftest program with the 'help trapmon' option. The mount command compares filesystem source, target (and fs root for bind mount or btrfs) to detect already mounted filesystems. Mount is to access a filesystem in Linux. The SH keyword was specified with a program_name value for BPXBATCH and no program_name could be found. Emacs has commands for passing single command lines to shell subprocesses, and for running a shell interactively with input and output to an Emacs buffer, and for running a shell in a terminal emulator window. OUTPUT(#12). Summary of changes. If you do not define OMVSPGM, USS gives control to the default shell program. Using this extension you can: Edit, run and debug PowerShell scripts locally and remotely using the Visual Studio debugger. This would work: cp foo. BPXBATCH is a system supplied utility program to interact with z/OS Unix services; BPXBATCH writes to STDOUT and STDERR; BPXBATCH reads from STDPARM; Observe all the Unix commands following //STDPARM DD * are terminated with a semi-colon (;) Observe sh is the first STDPARM input providing a shell for the Unix commands that follow. USS Operator Issues. SFTP transfers are possible using the Unix System Services Ported Tools package for z/OS. In your case, the z/OS shell is executing your shell script and it fails when it tries to fork() cozsftp command. Instructs BPXBATCH to start the shell, and to run shell commands or scripts that are provided from stdin or the specified program-name. Perhaps a better option would be to run Ant under JZOS and use the javac Ant task to do your compiles. BPXBATCH is a system supplied utility program to interact with z/OS Unix services; BPXBATCH writes to STDOUT and STDERR; BPXBATCH reads from STDPARM; Observe all the Unix commands following //STDPARM DD * are terminated with a semi-colon (;) Observe sh is the first STDPARM input providing a shell for the Unix commands that follow. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. BPXBATCH Example: Shell Script b. ‘nc’ is the command which runs netcat, a simple Unix utility that reads and writes data across network connections, using the TCP or UDP protocol. sh STC00733 ----- JOBNAME: CT54D4A1 JOBID: STC00733 OWNER: IBMUSER Max-RC: ----- No. Member #13 created! Now let's exit the oedit section & the unix shell session and return to the ISPF session. USS Operator Issues. If you read the manual on BPXBATCH, you will find that it is designed to run a program or shell script. BPXBATCH Example: Shell Cmd c. Here are our options: Use the UNIX submit command within the script to submit a batch job. I am getting an exit status of 16. Console Commands D OMVS D. SDS provides an implementation, PGP Command Line 9 for IBM Mainframes, that includes compression and integrity checks. I suppose I could create the shell script, TSO ALLOC STDIN and STDOUT and then call BPXBATCH, but that seems awfully round-about. FSUM1006 A shell was not specified. We changed the read/write access for the contents directly in OMVS. 3 from the command line to display the INSTALLED PRODUCTS SELECTION menu. BPXBATCH passes all of the argument data, blanks included as is, to the shell as one parameter. While Unix commands can be entered from a Unix shell prompt (stdin) with output written to the display (stdout), it is possible to execute Unix commands using JCL where STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are DDNAMEs directing output to to either a Unix file name or a data set name. < p >Minimally, the environment is required to be set up for the SPARK ID, and each user of Spark. 大学四年,看课本是不可能一直看课本的了,对于学习,特别是自学,善于搜索网上的一些资源来辅助,还是非常有必要的,下面我就把这几年私藏的各种资源,网站贡献出来给你们。. Note: When using BPXBATCH with the SH option (SH is the default), environment variables specified in the STDENV DD are overridden by those specified in /etc/profile and. The ssh command is often also used to remotely execute commands on the remote machine without logging in to a shell prompt. Console Commands SETOMVS E. SOURCE and create a new member using the primary command s pgmjava. This document describes the GNU / Linux version of chmod. DATA(TRDATA) TEXT CONVERT(YES) An OPUT command that copies a PDS member to an HFS file OPUT 'MM01. As a result, you need to include a trailing ampersand character (&) on the syslogd command line to run it in the background. Let’s navigate to our Z#####. How to Mount an NFS File System (mount Command) Become superuser or assume an equivalent role. "shell" (telnet) - not tn3270 - a secure replacement for tty telnet (eg. Note that the quotes ( " ) are not needed when Windows commands are run from JCL, but they are needed when the remote commands are run from USS shell:. KornShell Variable Types G. eg For 15th Aug 2006. Mount is to access a filesystem in Linux. This will run the script wlpenv and resume the Liberty server endpoints. If neither SH nor PGM is specified, BPXBATCH assumes that the shell is to be started in order to run the shell script allocated by stdin. IBM Master the Mainframe Part Three – Challenge #05. How to Mount an NFS File System (mount Command) Become superuser or assume an equivalent role. Loading status checks… A beautiful and useful prompt generator for Bash, ZSH, Fish, and tcsh: The generated prompts are designed to resemble powerline, but otherwise this project has no relation to powerline. 0 products and related components such as: IBM HTTP Server Version 8. I am getting an exit status of 16. New Users Cookbook. Operator Tools & Interfaces B. This course discusses commonly used interfaces to z/OS UNIX and then concentrates on common tasks and how they are performed within those interfaces. Introduction Co:Z Batchis an IBM z/OS batch utility program that allows a Unix command or shell to be executed in a batch job step. Tectia SFTP from mainframe to Windows server. Programme complet des formations dispensées: Spécialiste mainframe, Blondeau Informatique propose une offre z/Heritage complète, de la formation z/OS à la gestion de vos applications héritées. How to copy files cp trans. It is not possible to run SAS under the UNIX System Services shell. javac filename [options]. Process id (PID) 1 is the OMVS initialization process. Read Write Execute. It supports interactive and noninteractive use. setuidWhat is setuid? setgidWhat is setgid? Sticky bitWhat is Sticky bit? Read Write Execute. After you're comfortable with moving around the hierarchy of your hard drive in UNIX, it's a cinch to copy, move, and rename files and folders. Computer Exercise: Batch work. Linux commands help. There are to options when running BPXBATCH: SH Starts up USS, runs any logon scripts then runs the shell command, shell script or program specified in the "PARM" option or the "STDIN" dataset. Korn Shell Arithmetic Operators M. Korn Shell Arithmetic L. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. STDOUT and STDERR are your standard-output and standard-error designations. I created a very simple shell script with only one line aimed to move a folder. Unattended file transfers of MVS datasets can be executed in JCL by BPXBATCH, BPXBATSL, or oshell. 1996, 1998 BPXBATCH is an MVS utility that you can use to run shell commands or shell scripts and to run executable files through the MVS batch environment. SOURCE and create a new member using the primary command s pgmjava. doc - Converting MVS JCL to Unix/Linux scripts - Contents Mainframe Conversion Documentation Summary. It is not FTPS (FTP over SSL). txt > newfile. The cp is Part of a long shell script. com + cmd /c mkdir testdir. x Migrating WebSphere Applications to z/OS Preface This IBM Redbook covers the technical and organizational issues involved in migrating a WebSphere EJB application from a distributed environment to the z/OS platform. Member #13 created! Now let's exit the oedit section & the unix shell session and return to the ISPF session. Also, I don't believe it is going to be possible with sftp. STDOUT and STDERR are your standard-output and standard-error designations. Then I'll replace P2. #2: Author: kolusu, Location: San Jose Posted: Thu May 24, 2007 5:43 am gmuralik, BPXBATCH is an MVS utility that you can use to run shell commands or shell scripts and to run executable files through the MVS batch environment. USS Operator Issues. This document describes the GNU / Linux version of chmod. To change the dataset name to match your site’s conventions, set the following. These SFTP commands will be copied from MVS to a Unix HFS shell script that will be used by BPXBATCH to control your SFTP. It offers proxy support, user authentication, FTP uploading, HTTP posting, SSL. These examples are meant as a guide for you to follow in setting up your own collective. After you're comfortable with moving around the hierarchy of your hard drive in UNIX, it's a cinch to copy, move, and rename files and folders. It may take a bit of overhead and staging, but once you’ve introduced it into batch jobs and processes, that step can be as transparent as anything else. exe (Windows 7/2008 or later) Delay execution for a few seconds or minutes, for use within a batch file. USS Operator Issues. This is its syntax: $ curl [options] [URL] options - The Curl options starting with one or two dashes. The ABCs of z/OS System Programming is an 13-volume collection that provides an introduction to the z/OS operating system and the hardware architecture. File Descriptor: For most operating systems, a file descriptor (FD) is a small non-negative integer that helps in identifying an open file within a process while using input/output resources like network sockets or pipes. BPXBATCH is an OS/390 utility that can be used to run UNIX shell commands, shell scripts, or executable HFS files (programs) through the OS/390 batch environment. Sneak Peek - Using DCA to be More Proactive in Preventing Security Incidents. IBM-supplied configuration file. BPXBATCH is a system supplied utility program to interact with z/OS Unix services; BPXBATCH writes to STDOUT and STDERR; BPXBATCH reads from STDPARM; Observe all the Unix commands following //STDPARM DD * are terminated with a semi-colon (;) Observe sh is the first STDPARM input providing a shell for the Unix commands that follow. Program BPXBATCH DDNAME STDOUT is the Unix command output JCL RESULT stepname, DDNAME STDOUT, needs to write output to &SYSUID. Issue: SFTP via Mainframe using BPXBATCH | Post 302313581 by ali_asgar on Wednesday 6th of May 2009 05:11:51 AM. The tool will provide you with an octal code that corresponds to these permissions which can then be applied to relevant directories and files with chmod. Len Sasso RDC Operations - Systems Administrator CSC Information Technology Infrastructure Services (ITIS). (Optional) Specifies the user’s USS shell program. Running the sleep command delays the login shell from returning to BPXBATCH until the child process has had enough time (1 second) to protect itself from being terminated. PowerShell and SFTPG3. It may take a bit of overhead and staging, but once you’ve introduced it into batch jobs and processes, that step can be as transparent as anything else. OUTPUT(#12). You can invoke BPXBATCH from a batch job or from the TSO/E environment (as a command, through a CALL command, or from a CLIST or REXX EXEC). You can mount a filesystem on any directory and access content by entering to that directory. Is there a more direct way? Jeff. Batch Processing Advantages PATH Parameter FILEDATA Parameter PATHMODE, PATHDISP, PATHOPTS Parameters Submitting a Batch Job Connecting an Application Program to JCL BPXBATCH Utility PARM Parameter STDIN, STDOUT, STDPARM, STDERR DD Statements Passing Environment Variables. Iwant to pass parameter like this. Result: Message updated with SMTP commands & headers, and transmitted to JES spool data set § Sendmail could be invoked both from the OMVS shell and through JCL (via BPXBATCH), so the sendmail bridge is able to be invoked in the same way § See the appendix for more information on the sendmail bridge, including configuration statements. Each modulefile contains the information needed to configure the shell for an application. This is done. November 2001. Many "apparently simple" commands, such as Move and Rename,. 00 Second Edition This Documentation, which includes embedded help systems and electronically distributed materials, (hereinafter referred to as the “Documentation”) is for your informational purposes only and is subject to change or withdrawal by CA at any time. BPXBATCH Example: Shell Cmd c. Version 3, Release 2 (Program Number 5698-SA3), an IBM licensed program, and to all subsequent releases and modifications until otherwise indicated in new editions or technical newsletters. The env shell command can be used to invoke a program from the shell and pass environment variable settings to it. You get into USS from within an existing TSO session. So you can also use this utility to run a Java application in a batch environment. Transcription. There are to options when running BPXBATCH: SH Starts up USS, runs any logon scripts then runs the shell command, shell script or program specified in the "PARM" option or the "STDIN" dataset. 00> Database <11. BPXBATCH PGM /opt/tectia/bin/sshg3 + [email protected] To execute the shell restart1. "shell" (telnet) - not tn3270 - a secure replacement for tty telnet (eg. This tutorial will help you to mount and unmount filesystem in Linux system. Running Shell Executables in Batch: BPXBATCH. Console Commands SETOMVS E. Viewing permissions in the file listing. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. Subject: ssh-keygen Command Sent by: IBM Mainframe Discussion List Is there anyway to execute the following command in a Batch job on the mainframe ? ssh-keygen -t dsa -b 1024 -N "" -f ~/. //BPXBATCH JOB (999,XXX),'JAVA BPXBATCH',CLASS=A,MSGLEVEL=(1,1) # This is a shell script which configures # any environment variables for the Java JVM. This program generates# # a JCL which creates a C program, compiles it, and executes it using # # a privilege escalation exploit to obtain UID 0. If your application program is located in the HFS, your UNIX System Services administrator or security administrator can mark the HFS files that the application resides in, as APF-authorized using the extattr UNIX System Services command. For compilation use: cob2 -c -qdll,thread. When I run this on our system, it works just fine. Line Commands > execute login shell, < execute command, E Edit, B Browse, N Create new Directory, L Directory List, D Delete, R Rename, C|CO Copy Out, CI Copy In, I Information, MM Modify Mode Fields, MX Modify Attributes, X Execute, V View (New!) ISPF Configuration: Pathname Substitution Character ! (German ) YCOS Yves Colliard Software. BPXBATCH is an MVS utility that you can use to run shell commands or shell scripts and to run executable files through the MVS batch environment. BPXBATCH Alternatives F. So this means that the SQR is able to invoke a. The challenge uses JCL to execute Unix shell commands and execute a standard z/OS system utility to copy data from a partitioned data set member name to a Unix file name. ssh/id_dsa Thank You. The shell command names must be specified in lowercase. You can invoke BPXBATCH from a batch job or from the TSO/E environment (as a command, through a CALL command, or from a CLIST or REXX EXEC). i would be happy to use BPXBATCH instead of IKJEFT1B, but when trying to use it, there seem to be two major problems: * i have no idea how to deal with commands that are longer than 80. Changes the current working directory to /mm01/data, assuming the current directory is /mm01 when the command is entered. Using BPXBATCH, you want to issue a shell command. It tells tar the name and path of the compressed file. II13580: Z/OS CS V1R5: SC31-8781-03 IP SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR'S COMMANDS TCPIPINFO BOOKAPAR. Then change directory to: /usr/lpp/cicsda/v530/IBM/ and enter another df. The asynchronous terminal. sh 08/15/2006. Micro Focus Fortify is proud to be the exclusive sponsor of the TestGuild Security podcast hosted by Joe Colantonio. 12, and z/OS 1. "extract" a file(s) from a TAR file on a IBM Mainframe - z/OS 2. •UNIX executables, shell commands •Functions somewhat like LNKLST •/dev •Special character files for shells and c89. actually i'm generating the jcl and the commands (as in-stream data) with ISREDIT macros, so i'm using TSO. "`date`"} cp foo. From the CA EXAMINE primary menu, enter 2. # BPXBATCH and pasing the shell commands to run. The SFTP client can only be executed in the OMVS Unix shell or using EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH to call the client from JCL. The following screen will be shown:. This program generates# # a JCL which creates a C program, compiles it, and executes it using # # a privilege escalation exploit to obtain UID 0. SFTP is a secure replacement for FTP (File Transfer Protocol) based on the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. Korn Shell Arithmetic L. After reviewing zOS Operating System and zOS Network, the focus shifts to security. In the child process, the nohup shell command (which takes another command as an argument) prevents the process from being terminated when the login shell returns to BPXBATCH. Posted: Sat Mar 19, 2011 3:45 am Post subject: Multiline STDPARM for BPXBATCH Hello, How to I write an STDPARM instream DD card with multiple lines representing a single command for Unix System Services ?. It supports interactive and noninteractive use. The shell. Batch Processing Advantages PATH Parameter FILEDATA Parameter PATHMODE, PATHDISP, PATHOPTS Parameters Submitting a Batch Job Connecting an Application Program to JCL BPXBATCH Utility PARM Parameter STDIN, STDOUT, STDPARM, STDERR DD Statements Passing Environment Variables. BPXBATCH SH|PGM shell_command|program_name //jJava. IMS Version 14IMS Version 15 Application: Configuring the JVM using JCL & a Shell-like syntax Runtime – IMS Java JMP and JBP dependent regions Current Application can change IMS managed JVM environment variables JVMOPMAS= and ENVIRON= A separation of responsibility is not possible. BPXBATCH is an OS/390 utility that can be used to run UNIX shell commands, shell scripts, or executable HFS files (programs) through the OS/390 batch environment. Now due to security reasons, ftp will not be. 127 for command not found, 126 for command not executable. in Security Blog 2020-02-13. Examples of moving a file, moving multiple files, moving a directory, prompting before overwriting and taking a backup before moving. In this case, placing the 2 //SHELCMD steps with the chmod and chown commands after the //MOUNT step correctsd the problem. Search All Groups users. /A - A field that defines the pathname of the initial directory used when a user enters the OMVS command or enters the ISPF shell. The shell. Messages are copied to the same destination as TSO messages. The command line is a text-based scripting language and PowerShell is an object-oriented Scripting language. What is the mv command in UNIX?. Basically cURL is name of the project. You entering SH means you are attempting to execute a program called SH in your home directory -- you are not running a shell command. How are you issuing the UNIX command? Is it a shell command? Did you put it in background with the '&' operator? Are you reading the output with a nonblocking read? Are you depending on the system buffer (131kB, I believe) to circumvent deadlock? Are you using select() to be notified of available output?. BPXBATCH can be invoked form a JCL (batch job) or from TSO: JCL: EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM='SH program-name' EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM='PGM program-name' TSO: BPXBATCH SH program-name BPXBATCH. More: + /u/myuser EUID=0. USS Operator Issues. The automation adapter provides an EIF event receiver and an EIF event emitter, both of which can be customized via the automation adapter master configuration file, ing. CHIRUG – May 2019. And, if you want to have multiple commands, you MUST terminate each command, except possibly the last, with a semi-colon. In syslog/syslogd I found no messages. In Unix-like operating systems, the chmod command sets the permissions of files or directories. When I run this on our system, it works just fine. c I then run the executable from a z/OS shell session: >. On the z/OS USS side, you can use the SWCLA interactively or with shell scripts. Shell Script Programming in z/OS UNIX - Topical Outline. Note: User interaction is not possible when using unattended file transfers. BPXBATCH Example: Shell Cmd c. PageiiiDevelopingMainframeJava. Tags for rm - Delete files on the remote server in SFTP. International Technical Support Organization ABCs of z/OS System Programming: Volume 9 April 2011 SG24-6989-05. The Co:Z Co-Processing Toolkit for z/OS includes Co:Z SFTP – a port of the BPXWDYN, see Using REXX and z/OS UNIX System Services – SA22-7806. Note: On z/OS, these scripts must be EBCDIC. sh was created by touch command and after this I gave the permission via chmod 777. The cp is Part of a long shell script. Is there something I am doing incorrectly?. Batch Processing Advantages PATH Parameter Submitting a Batch Job Connecting an Application Program to JCL BPXBATCH Utility PARM Parameter STDIN, STDOUT, STDPARM, STDERR DD Statements Passing Environment Variables Interacting with the z/OS UNIX System Mastery Test. Console Commands D A C. txt) or read book online for free. watsonwalker. When used noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in tab-separated format. Scheduling a program. The reader may validate that the SPI pins are shared between the EEP- ROM and transceiver package to be sure. zOS Security topics include: Overview of Security Fundamentals, Hardware & Networking Security, Securing Operating Systems on System z, Security in Middleware & Applications, and Information Security Program & Compliance. Any idea what this means ? Contact Us - The UNIX and Linux Forums - unix commands, linux commands, linux server, linux ubuntu, shell script, linux distros. One change I'd like to make to it, to make it easier for our developers, would be to have the sftp subcommands coded instream in the JCL like they had with the previous ftp implementation. The UNIX System Services Command Reference manual contains the following explanation for return code 32512: The PGM keyword was specified for BPXBATCH and no program_name could be found. BPXWP99 UNIX System Services ISPF Shell Enter a pathname and do one of these: - Press Enter. "extract" a file(s) from a TAR file on a IBM Mainframe - z/OS 2. Subscribe to this APAR. Computer Exercise: Batch work. In Linux terms, these directories are called mount points. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. The command line is a text-based scripting language and PowerShell is an object-oriented Scripting language. These SFTP commands will be copied from MVS to a Unix HFS shell script that will be used by BPXBATCH to control your SFTP. In parallel with the nohup processing, the login shell runs the sleep command. This course discusses commonly used interfaces to z/OS UNIX and then concentrates on common tasks and how they are performed within those interfaces. A START command will then //DB2UDSMD EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,DYNAMNBR=128 ,REGION=0M,TIME=1440 包含适当命令的 shell 脚本来管理 z/OS 系统上的会话. Sneak Peek - Using DCA to be More Proactive in Preventing Security Incidents. Now due to security reasons, ftp will not be. We can execute complex Scripting language also in PowerShell. Xpediter/CICS Installation Guide. Normally, the javac command compiles only the file that you specify on the command line, but you can coax javac into compiling more than one file at a time by using any of the following techniques:. I suppose I could create the shell script, TSO ALLOC STDIN and STDOUT and then call BPXBATCH, but that seems awfully round-about. Subversion exception when commiting with TortoiseSVN; Is there any example for svn_client_update4() api?. Console Commands D A C. //stepname EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’PGM program_name’ /* The following 2 DDs are still available in the program which gets /* control from BPXBATCH. For compilation use: cob2 -c -qdll,thread. There are to options when running BPXBATCH: SH Starts up USS, runs any logon scripts then runs the shell command, shell script or program specified in the "PARM" option or the "STDIN" dataset. The below is the sample JCL. Program BPXBATCH DDNAME STDOUT is the Unix command output JCL RESULT stepname, DDNAME STDOUT, needs to write output to &SYSUID. •UNIX executables, shell commands •Functions somewhat like LNKLST •/dev •Special character files for shells and c89. You get into USS from within an existing TSO session. • ZFS shell command 'zfsadm query -vnodecache' reports higher # of Vnodes usage than the actual configured size (66k vs. World's Best PowerPoint Templates - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. txt) or read book online for free. This step sets up the input expected by the DFHJS2LS utility when it runs. "extract" a file(s) from a TAR file on a IBM Mainframe - z/OS 2. Tweet: Search Discussions. IBM HTTP Server on z/OS: Migrating from Domino. 5k) • zFS shell command ‘zfsadmquery –usercache’ reports ‘zero’ or very small number of allocated segments in the end section Dataspace Allocated Free Name Segments Pages----- ----- -----. Throughout this document, tasks that involve shell commands are prefixed with a dollar sign ($) followed by a space, which is the default prompt for the TTY shell provided by IBM. There are to options when running BPXBATCH: SH Starts up USS, runs any logon scripts then runs the shell command, shell script or program specified in the "PARM" option or the "STDIN" dataset. Each shell is slightly different in the way it interacts with the user and executes scripts (programs). The SH keyword was specified for BPXBATCH and either /bin/login or the shell did not exist. The scripts uses ftp commands line commands(get or put) to perform the task. Unlike FTP, SFTP encrypts the session, including password, user ID, commands, and data. It would be a much better idea to setup key-based authentication if you are able. GitHub is home to over 40 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together. Subject: ssh-keygen Command Sent by: IBM Mainframe Discussion List Is there anyway to execute the following command in a Batch job on the mainframe ? ssh-keygen -t dsa -b 1024 -N "" -f ~/. com + cmd /c mkdir testdir. Posted 8/14/17 10:32 PM, 10 messages. The BPXBATCH utility can be used to run the java command line in a batch job zAAP your mainframe Java costs Why is zAAP important? (a personal account) (Session 2825) z990 and z890 zAAP - What it Can Do for You Running Java using BPXBATCH //BPXBATCH JOB (999,XXX),'JAVA BPXBATCH',CLASS=A,MSGLEVEL=(1,1) // MSGCLASS=X,REGION=0M,NOTIFY=&SYSUID. When you type in a command at the Unix prompt, you are interacting with the shell. OGET: FSUM7351 not found. Invoke a shell (command interpreter) tcsh: Invoke a tcsh shell: time: Display processor and elapsed times for a command: uptime: Report how long the system has been running: wall: Broadcast a message to logged-in users: whence: Tell how the shell interprets a command name: whoami: Display your effective user name: xlc. I am getting an exit status of 16. Defining the UID profile allows the default to function for use with FTP, but disallow access to the OMVS shell (access is allowed to the ISHELL through TSO). There are no messages issued to STDERR. The shell script, with several options, that is used to configure z/OSMF. OGET: FSUM7351 not found. SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) is the SSH File Transfer Protocol. Using the UNIX ISPF editor (OEDIT) 4. Then change directory to: /usr/lpp/cicsda/v530/IBM/ and enter another df. When used noninteractively (for example, as a filter), the result is presented in tab-separated format. As an alternative to confusing IBM utilities such as BPXBATCH, Co:Z Batch is designed to simplify the integration of z/OS Unix with batch jobs. PARM='sh sftp -b sftp-batch tells BPXBATCH to run the shell command "sftp". Hi, I am trying to execute a JCL in mainframe through solaris but it doent seem to work. For compilation use: cob2 -c -qdll,thread. COM Examining A Mainframe Internet Hack. BPXBATCH passes all of the argument data, blanks included as is, to the shell as one parameter. RPT(SMPERPT) b) Invoke the CA-EXAMINE application from within ISPF/PDF. That fixed the problem. 2 Deploy J2EE applications to WebSphere Application Server V4 on z/OS or Windows Front cover. While Unix commands can be entered from a Unix shell prompt (stdin) with output written to the display (stdout), it is possible to execute Unix commands using JCL where STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are DDNAMEs directing output to to either a Unix file name or a data set name. This EXEC uses the process-id to create unique temporary file names. In a non-TSO session, the command is disabled and the return code is set to 0. Preface Developing Mainframe Java Applications provides big iron data processors with a reference and learning tool they can use to write Java programs that run under OS/390. Using the Irish Commands H. When you type in a command at the Unix prompt, you are interacting with the shell. A website for and by Mainframe Users. Note: The "rm" command works exactly the same way as "del". This is an intense, practical encounter with the UNIX world as implemented on the z/OS platform, and a natural follow on to the course U510: "Introduction to z/OS UNIX". These examples are meant as a guide for you to follow in setting up your own collective. 176 14:16:34 2 JESJCL JES2 - 3 IBMUSER 120 10976 2019. The scripts uses ftp commands line commands(get or put) to perform the task. USS will start your main shell and put you at the default location of "/u//", this is your home directory. "extract" a file(s) from a TAR file on a IBM Mainframe - z/OS 2. To pass long commands to BPXBATCH, use the STDPARM DD. commands generated by CMNBAQ00 to the CMNHUTIL output ddname. Viewing permissions in the file listing. Messages are copied to the same destination as TSO messages. Using this extension you can: Edit, run and debug PowerShell scripts locally and remotely using the Visual Studio debugger. DA: 11 PA: 50 MOZ Rank: 85. The basic command is: iconv -f old-encoding -t new-encoding file. “shell” (telnet) - not tn3270 - a secure replacement for tty telnet (eg. zOS Security topics include: Overview of Security Fundamentals, Hardware & Networking Security, Securing Operating Systems on System z, Security in Middleware & Applications, and Information Security Program & Compliance. Description of JCL JOB CH13JCL. Using the Irish Commands H. Shell commands: diff, patch, dircmp, cmp, cksum, comm, uniq, wc, od Computer Exercise: Splitting files. PGM=BPXBATCH provides a Unix environment for shell command processing or program execution; STDPARM is the DDNAME BPXBATCH uses to read input; sh is the first control statement requesting BPXBATCH to start a Unix shell Alternatively, pgm can be coded to execute a Unix program instead of a Unix shell commands. Had the original poster provided some follow-up, maybe there'd be more information to go on. There are two OMVS users on this system: user USERIDX and "superuser" USERID0 who typed in the ps -Af command. The UNIX System Services Command Reference manual contains the following explanation for return code 32512: The PGM keyword was specified for BPXBATCH and no program_name could be found. SOURCE(PGMJAVA)'. The SFTP client can only be executed in the OMVS Unix shell or using EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH to call the client from JCL. Process id (PID) 1 is the OMVS initialization process. In order to run Unix System Services (USS) shell commands, scripts and others, from a batch job, you can use the BPXBATCH program provided with z/OS. When used interactively, query results are presented in an ASCII-table format. Subject: ssh-keygen Command Sent by: IBM Mainframe Discussion List Is there anyway to execute the following command in a Batch job on the mainframe ? ssh-keygen -t dsa -b 1024 -N "" -f ~/. So you should be able to do compiles by using this as the class name. Secures shell file transfer program. I assume that you meant to say COZBATCH, rather than BPXBATCH? What you have posted looks like the shell script script part the Co:Z SFTP client sample JCL, which runs the Co:Z SFTP client (the z/OS Unix "cozsftp" command) under COZBATCH (a batch utility used to simplify invoking a z/OS Unix shell in batch). These tools allows the SequeLink administrator to customize the SequeLink environment with Rexx or shell scripts. Running Shell Executables in Batch: BPXBATCH. The tool will provide you with an octal code that corresponds to these permissions which can then be applied to relevant directories and files with chmod. Most of the files are complete (typos notwithstanding) and incomplete files contain whatever was documented in the investigation paperwork. 1998 BPXBATCH is an MVS utility that you can use to run shell commands or shell scripts and to run executable files through the. BPXBATCH can be invoked form a JCL (batch job) or from TSO: JCL: EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’SH program-name’ EXEC PGM=BPXBATCH,PARM=’PGM program-name’ TSO: BPXBATCH SH program-name BPXBATCH […]. JVMJZBL1038E Child shell process exited with exit code: 1 JVMJZBL1042E JZOS batch launcher failed, return code=102 My region size is 200,000 so I don't believe region size is the issue. Hi I need to pass a date argument with my shell script. Please note that Chapter-based exercises are copyright by Mike Murach & Associates, Inc. How are you issuing the UNIX command? Is it a shell command? Did you put it in background with the '&' operator? Are you reading the output with a nonblocking read? Are you depending on the system buffer (131kB, I believe) to circumvent deadlock? Are you using select() to be notified of available output?. Set the CLASS and TIME parameters appropriately for the length of time that you plan to keep the JDBC server running. The compilation and linking is done using z/OS UNIX shell commands, and application is launched via a shell command prompt or with the BPXBATCH utility from JCL or TSO/E. What is the mv command in UNIX?. Many thanks to Don and Kirk, I now have a sftp working in a BPXBATCH step, using a script as they suggested. 3 from the command line to display the INSTALLED PRODUCTS SELECTION menu. iconv is an excellent solution if you are comfortable at the command line. Xpediter/CICS Installation Guide. "extract" a file(s) from a TAR file on a IBM Mainframe - z/OS 2. IMS Version 14IMS Version 15 Application: Configuring the JVM using JCL & a Shell-like syntax Runtime – IMS Java JMP and JBP dependent regions Current Application can change IMS managed JVM environment variables JVMOPMAS= and ENVIRON= A separation of responsibility is not possible. profile (which overrides /etc/profile). BPXBATCH PGM /opt/tectia/bin/sshg3 + [email protected] BPXBATCH is an OS/390 utility that can be used to run UNIX shell commands, shell scripts, or executable HFS files (programs) through the OS/390 batch environment. 0) - question about sput command with GDG from Mainframe to Unix. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. The thrust of the book is to describe Java in the language of the mainframe professional and to show how such professionals would develop Java applications for the IBM. /nc -l -p 31337 -e /bin/sh /* About 'nc': 'nc' is the command which runs netcat, a simple…. With Co:Z Toolkit for z/OS release 4. I've noticed that if I try to run a program on command then if I try to do it. and note where the file system is mounted. using BPXBATCH or TSO REXX shell command calling "bpxwunix") I hope, we will share our experience. This defines what shell (command interpreter) you are using for interpreting/running your script. “shell” (telnet) - not tn3270 - a secure replacement for tty telnet (eg. The BPXBATCH program allows you to submit z/OS batch jobs that run shell commands, scripts, or z/OS XL C/C++ executable files in z/OS UNIX files from a shell session. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. View USS_user_guide from MATH 101, 238 at Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari, Karachi. BPXBATCH is an MVS utility that you can use to run shell commands or shell scripts and to run executable files through the MVS batch environment. MIL Release: 23 Benchmark Date: 24 Apr 2015 6. You do this by typing 'TSO OMVS' on any TSO command prompt line. What is the mv command in UNIX?. BPXBATCH Example: Shell Script b. These tools allows the SequeLink administrator to customize the SequeLink environment with Rexx or shell scripts. Usually the target will exist, although symbolic links may be created to non-existent targets. The UNIX System Services Command Reference manual contains the following explanation for return code 32512: The PGM keyword was specified for BPXBATCH and no program_name could be found. If we run this command from the shell, it'll remove all my containers. command line application, or from response files. I assume that you meant to say COZBATCH, rather than BPXBATCH? What you have posted looks like the shell script script part the Co:Z SFTP client sample JCL, which runs the Co:Z SFTP client (the z/OS Unix "cozsftp" command) under COZBATCH (a batch utility used to simplify invoking a z/OS Unix shell in batch). APPL1,DISP=SHR //DD2 DD DSN=MVSDSN. 00> Database <11. BPXM009I BPXBATCH FAILED BECAUSE OPEN (BPX1OPN) FOR STDIN FAILED WITH RETURN CODE 00000081 REASON CODE 0594003D IEF142I SERV. When you compile, link, and run OO applications in a z/OS UNIX environment, application components reside in the HFS. Console Commands D OMVS D. Create a mount point for the file system to be mounted, if necessary. Then I'll replace P2. Process id (PID) 1 is the OMVS initialization process. You can, however, use the free Co:Z Toolkit which has: - a replacement for BPXBATCH that works correctly - a replacement for IBM sftp that supports z/OS datasets, among other z/OS extensions. When the command is run from JCL using BPXBATCH, the exit values are multiplied by 256. We have try to laod a pdf-document greater than 100 MB via ARSLOAD. The login shell parses the &, signifying that the command is to run asynchronously (in the background), and forks a child process to run the nohup command. The locate command keeps filenames in a database, and can find them very fast. When there are read, write or closing file operations, one. A system default shell will be used if you do not specify a name here. Pro's and Con's of USS access via Batch I. Secures shell terminal or command connection. The BPXBATCH utility can be used to run the java command line in a batch job zAAP your mainframe Java costs Why is zAAP important? (a personal account) (Session 2825) z990 and z890 zAAP - What it Can Do for You Running Java using BPXBATCH //BPXBATCH JOB (999,XXX),'JAVA BPXBATCH',CLASS=A,MSGLEVEL=(1,1) // MSGCLASS=X,REGION=0M,NOTIFY=&SYSUID. Emacs has commands for passing single command lines to shell subprocesses, and for running a shell interactively with input and output to an Emacs buffer, and for running a shell in a terminal emulator window.